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The guests presented more than a dozen of examples in this field, their lab, as well as modern research technologies.

Harutyun Alaverdyan, Deputy Director of Darmantest Laboratories Research Center, speaking about their activities, mentioned that the whole process of organizing clinical research in the company is being resumed and carried out by the center, and research is being done in a technically-equipped lab.

Astghik Mikayelyan, head of the Laboratory of Darmantest, spoke about the laboratory’s technical capabilities: “Our laboratory is equipped with modern devices and is checked several times a year by foreign experts.”

The Darmantest Laboratories research center’s primary goal is to check the safety and effectiveness of the medicines before they appear on the market.

The conference was held under the auspices of the Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia Aram I and the President of the Republic of Artsakh Bako Sahakyan.

The RA President Serzh Sargsyan, Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians His Holiness Karekin II, professors and clergymen from Armenia and the Diaspora, including Dean of the Faculty of History Edik Minasyan, Dean of the Faculty of International Relations Gegham Petrosyan, Head of the Chair of Iranian Studies of the Faculty of Oriental Studies Vardan Voskanyan attended the conference.

The three-day conference was chaired by professors Richard Hovhannisyan, Ashot Melkonyan and Yervand Pambukyan.

Representatives of YSU made presentations at the conference. Dean of YSU Faculty of History Edik Minasyan made a report titled “Independent Movement in Armenia in the 1980s”, Head of the Chair of Iranian Studies Vardan Voskanyan – “Armenian-Iranian Relations in 1918-1920”, and dean of the Faculty of International Relations Gegham Petrosyan – “Relations of the First Republic with the non-Soviet state formations of Russia (1918-1920)”.

YSU Rector Aram Simonyan made opening remarks, noting that tourism is directly related to the country’s recognition and economic development: “Tourism is a sphere of services today, which occupies a prominent place in the world. All countries are interested in developing this sphere, as a result of which new roads, new jobs will be created and a new culture will be created. For our country, which has such a civilization and past, tourism is also an important and remarkable area. Today’s discussion is a fundamental, principled and necessary step to establish and disseminate our philosophy in the field.”

Mekhak Apresyan, the First Deputy Chairman of the State Committee for Tourism at the Ministry of Economic Development and Investments, added that dozens of institutions and organizations are working in the country for training specialists: “Today we are talking about quality development, moreover, about having specialization apart from general education,” - said Mekhak Apresyan, claiming that the number of tourists tripled in Armenia over the past ten years.

Representatives from different organizations and institutions took part in the scientific discussion. In the beginning Head of the Department of Service of the Faculty of Geography and Geology Seyran Suvaryan, Dean of the Faculty Marat Grigoryan and Associate Professor Gor Alexanyan made reports. Thematic topics of the reports touched upon the theoretical, practical and educational issues of the field.

Presenting the report entitled “Sustainable tourism development as a necessity in Armenia”, Seyran Suvaryan, Head of the Department of Service, noted that there is a great interest in the sector, which has its positive and negative aspects: “The main point is that not all are professionals. Tourism is a complex system of services, and service provision should be made by trained personnel.”

Seyran Suvaryan added: “Sustainable tourism leads to the management of all resources that satisfy the economic, social and aesthetic needs, while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and other systems.”

Speaking about tourism alternatives in Armenia, Seyran Suvaryan highlighted the significant risks of natural and socio-economic development of agriculture, financial, resource, personnel shortage and timeliness of industry development, as well as limited opportunities for information and technology development in connection with the low globalization of Armenia.

According to him for the development of tourism in Armenia, it is necessary to create spatial disintegration: “Destination as a spatial unit is a system of services that satisfies the needs of tourists and meets material requirements.”

Dean of the YSU Faculty of Geography and Geology Marat Grigoryan delivered a report on “The Environmental Problems of Armenia as an Obstacle to the Development of Sustainable Tourism”, which reflected the risks of Armenia’s geographical location. He highlighted the danger of landslides: “Most important roads are mountainous, not all of them have solid foundations. We have to work in this direction so that we do not have any obstacles to the development of tourism.”

Presenting the report “Preparation of Sustainable Tourism Professionals at YSU and Local Labor Market Requirements”, Gor Alexanyan said that YSU is a pioneer in the training of such specialists for Armenia, which attempts to introduce innovation into the tourism sector.

The Associate Professor spoke about the history and current activities of the Chair and presented the results of the research and the issues. Gor Alexanyan stressed that about 90% of respondents have no professional education: “The labor market requires a performer rather than a thinker. Besides, there is an ideological discrepancy between the labor market and education.”

At the end of the report, a discussion took place, during which the representatives of the field expressed their opinions and made recommendations. For example, employee of the RA Ministry of Emergency Situations Armen Karapetyan urged to pay more attention to risk assessment before making any program.

The participants of the discussion talked about the necessity of cooperation with education, relevant subdivisions, the importance of foreign language teaching, the necessity of garbage removal and other problems, as well as steps to address them.

The brilliant scientist was able to do almost impossible, explaining the universe as simple and accessible as possible, making it even accessible to children.


Though Hawkin’s biography was not rich in scientific formulas, however, the hypothesis of the origin and structure of the universe, particularly the black holes, still remains in the spotlight of the scientific world.


Emilia Karapetyan, Associate Professor of the Chair of General Physics and Astrophysics at YSU Faculty of Physics, associates with Stephen Hawking the 1980s and 1990s. At that time, his assumptions about the existence of black holes in the scientific world have created a real turmoil. It was like a science fiction literature script. People’s questions about the innovative theory were endless; the wave of interest was high.


One of the greatest investments that he made in the field of astrophysics was the expansion of curiosity towards the latter not only scientists, but also ordinary people, including children.


The black hole is absorbable. According to Hawking, each cosmic body has its nucleus, from which the radiation is unexplained. This radiation creates a gravitational field that attracts the bodies present in the universe.
Hawking was trying to explain many of the cosmic phenomena with their black holes in their nucleus, such as the volatility of the bodies in the universe.


Victor Hambardzumyan proposed the opposite theory. The great scientist thought that in reality the opposite phenomenon took place. The bodies are not absorbed but thrown out of the cavity. Besides, Victor Hambardzumyan has suggested the hypothesis of superhighter material. The universe has emerged from superficial material, the basis of which is the large explosion. Hambardzumyan did not agree with the hypothesis that there is a black hole at the heart of everything.


Victor Hambardzumyan’s theory of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the scientific world was as stirring as the theory of hollow black holes. According to this theory, the activity and behavior of the galaxies are conditioned by the nucleus of the latter; the nucleus dictates the behavior of the galaxy.


It is a completely different matter where the theory of black hole is not taken, but the observation and the resolution of the phenomenon. Physics and astronomy are experimental sciences, and the laws that operate on the planet cannot be realized in the universe.

Today, GMOs are considered to be the most widely used and most productive biotechnology products whose roots come from the 1970s. After appearing on the GMO-containing food market, various layers of society began to actively discuss their security issues. Scientists and public opinion on the issue are different and uncertain.

Journalist Varduhi Zakaryan held an interview with Armen Trchounian, Head of the Chair of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology of YSU Faculty of Biology.

- Mr. Trchounian, what factors have led to the need to use GMO?

-The problem of genetic modification is quite actual and has years of experience in the field of science. These are organisms whose genome has changed in artificial conditions, through genetic engineering. Genetically modified can be single-cell and multi-cellular organisms, microorganisms, plants, animals. Numerous studies have been carried out for research purposes in order to obtain new end-products, proteins, drugs through other sustainable organisms. Today GMO presents a number of plants that are available in our diet and receive other nutritional products. All processes are conducted under the care of experts and under strictly controlled conditions, subject to numerous expertise and analysis. As a result, many achievements have been registered. Everything has changed in the world: human diet, lifestyle, ecology, which can be very calm because of various deviations and negative changes. As a result of these changes, many illnesses have grown old. They are more important and are in need of attention. Finally, the goal of scientists is to prevent the occurrence of these diseases that lead to death or premature aging. The gene modification process is a link in that huge chain.

- What is the negative impact on the human body?


- According to prominent scientists, gene modification of various organisms is quite effective, justified and prospective, if, of course, they are carried out under strict supervision of scientists. As a scientist, I agree. Finally, scientists are facing greater and more primary goals to address the issue of increasing food volumes globally. The problem is not only in the availability of GMOs in food, but on its proper use. The genetic changes as well as the deviations in the human body can also occur under the influence of various factors, such as chemicals (fertilizers), radiation, processing and storage conditions. The US or a number of European countries spend huge amounts of money for the implementation of these processes, realizing the problem, the ways and results of the solution. Therefore, it is not right to give unequivocal evaluations. There are much more serious problems in food security today. No one, including Armenia, can claim unequivocally that the food that does not contain GMO is safer for our organism than genetically modified foodstuffs. Even products on which it is written in large letters “Do not Contain GMOs” cannot be considered safe as it is not clear what raw materials they have, how they have been processed, what conditions have been maintained, and so on. Therefore, first of all, we must solve the problem of public awareness. In fact, the reason for public anxiety is inadequate information and a lack of popular scientific knowledge. Discussion about the positive or negative impacts of GMOs can only be possible if there is a deep scientific knowledge.